C O N T E N T S
DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESSES AND STRUCTURES
V e t k a Z h e k o v a - Remarriages in Bulgaria
M a r t a S u g a r e v a, I v a n G a r n i z o v, K a m el l i a L i l o v a - Fertility dynamics in Bulgaria and East Europe ( 1960 – 2000 )
Ì à r i a B e l c h å v à - Illegitimate fertility in Bulgaria over 20th century
S v e t o z a r Z l a t a n o v - Dynamics of ageing in Southeast Europe
V a n y a D o d u n e k o v a - Structural changes of population by basic ethnical groups according the population censuses of 20 th century as reflection of the demographic processes in Bulgaria
QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POPULATION
T a t y a n a K o t z e v a, E l i t s a D i m i t r o v a - Risk behaviors among the school aged children in Bulgaria
N i ê î l à Ê r a s t å v – Natural movement of population in the region of Pernik
G à l i n à M a n î l î v à – Dynamics of the changes in the age at marriage among the Bulgarians and Gagauz in Bessarabia
S l à v ê à D r à g à n î v à – Population and properties inventory of the Tekfur gyol within Kyustendja district in the Ottoman Empire in Dobrudja – 1877
Dynamics of the changes in the age at marriage among the Bulgarians and Gagauz in Bessarabia
The age at marriage is one of the significant factors for the process of marriage and family formation. Moreover, it is a basic and visible indicator of the changes occurring in the society and having both social and economic character. The raising or decrease of the age at marriage limit among young people is a result of the impact of such important factors as level of education, occupation, changes in the economic and cultural life, etc. A specific impact on the indicators of the age at marriage is exercised by the traditional legislative system.
In the present study the dynamics of the age at marriage among the Bulgarian emigrants to Bessarabia is traced back on the basis of the available scientific literature and of the information from some field surveys.
Population and properties inventory of the Tekfur gyol within Kyustendja district in the Ottoman Empire in Dobrudja – 1877
The centuries-long tradition of Tekfur gyol both in the administration and in the farming and stock-breeding as well as in the salt-production was the most important prerequisite for the enlargement of the village and its promulgation for a town in Roumania. It is possible that the registered Bulgarians who paid taxes to that settlement did not settle in it and returned to their birthplaces. However, the Bulgarians who adopted Islam have gradually integrated with the Turkish population.
Remarriages in Bulgaria
The article deals with the problems of remarriages in the country.
Data is presented in the long terms 1918-2005. The main results outlines that remarriages for men are varied between 12-15% in all period. The percentage of remarriages for women as a rule are lower than that for men.
The paper discuses the distribution of marriages by former marital status of spouses during 1920-2004.
It is calculated the mean age at marriage by sex and marital status for 1965 and 2001.
The main conclusions are made that the phenomena of remarriages is very complicated problem.
To answer a lot of questions is necessary to have data for history of every marriage of spouses. This information can be received by special sociological survey of people with remarriages.
The extramarital birthrate in Bulgaria through the XX-th century
The article examines the development of extramarital birthrate in Bulgaria in dependence with the basic demographic and social mother’s characteristics – age, education, occupation, social group and residence (town/village). The factors for the unwanted extramarital pregnancy are analyzed according to the results obtained from the sociological researches carried out as well as the women’s attitude to the solitary motherhood. Characteristics of the extramarital fathers are made based on their age, occupation and marital status. The social, moral and juridical problems of the extramarital children are also discussed.
Demographic statistic data shows that since the beginning of the XX-th century the ratio of extramarital children to all children, has been continually growing: from 0,4% in 1901-1905, to 10,6% in 1976-1980. In the 1980s this ratio stabilizes at this level, and it remains 10-11%. Since 1990, however, there has been a boom in the number of the extramarital children: from 12,4% in 1990 it rapidly comes up to 25% in 1994 and 1995, to reach as high as 42,1% in 2001. In other words, while in 1980s each 10-th child was extramarital, nowadays almost every other child is extramarital. This process is of great dynamics, and it mirrors many other processes.
The regular and rapid increase in the number of illegitimate children is a fact both in town and country, and since 1955 their ratio in the country has considerably grown in comparison with the extramarital children in cities.
Extramarital birthrate is highly dependent on the age of the mother and it is highest among the youngest (<20), marking a sharp decrease in the next age groups, to be again remarkably increased with the older groups (>35). But at all age levels there is a strong tendency to extramarital delivery of children.
About 13% of our contemporaries live in a free union, without being married. The children born to those families are registered as extramarital, without actually being so. Free unions are most common among young people, or among people of lower education and ethnic minorities. The ratio of these “false” extramarital children is to be calculated at about 25-30%.
Natural movement of population in the region of Pernik
In the article some aspects of the current demographic processes in the Pernik district will be viewed. The Pernik district is one of the administrative units most strongly affected by the unfavourable demographic processes and during the past few years it has been in demographic crisis, as the whole country has. Its population continually decreases in number as a result of the negative natural and migration increase rates. For years the small municipalities in the district have had a negative increase rate, and in the past few years this tendency has become typical of the Pernik municipality. The low birth rate leads to the aging of the population, which itself is a precondition of low birth rate. Nowadays the salient negative natural increase rate strongly influences the aging of the population and its decrease in number. If the development of the demographic processes goes on in the same way, it will affect negatively the future socio-economic development of the district.
Dynamics of ageing in Southeast Europe
In this article we examine the demographic processes in Southeast Europe in relation to the process of population ageing. Comparisons were made between Bulgaria, Hungary, Greece and Romania with demographic indicators for the period 1950-2005, and also for the forecast period 2005-2050. These indicators reflect the basic demographic processes – fertility, mortality and migration. Specific indicators measuring the ageing process are also included.
It has been revealed, that the rise in life expectancy has relatively weak influence on the structure of the population by age and sex, since countries with significantly different levels of life expectancy are at the same stage of population ageing with similar structures. In all four countries we expect the formation of significant share of elderly and very old people – the persons aged 65 or more will exceed 30%, and the oldest-old – those of 80 years of age or more will exceed 10% of the population by 2050.
These demographic consequences will result in very high old-age dependency ratio. The process of generations’ replacement will also be affected. Most affected will be the social security systems of these countries, because of the ageing of the labor force. In the view of such development of the demographic processes, the only possibility for counter-action can be the in-migration. This approach is already applied by most European countries, despite some serious resistance in their societies.
Dynamics of population of large ethnic groups in Bulgaria according to the censuses carried out in the 20th century
The article presents the size changes of total Bulgarian population according to the proportion of the basice thnical groups by sex, age, place of leaving and districts during the 20 th century using the population censuses data conducted 1900 – 2001.
The are made comparisions between the prortional participartion of the basic ethnicities in Bulgaria – Bulgarian, Turks and Gipry (Poma) the first one taking about 80% of the total population the second – 9% and Roma – 2 – 3,5%. They differ and rate of natural increase and migration flows and participate in population structural changes by different strage of demographyc transition. The explination of demographic processus by population structural changes is an efficient tool regarding the orietaston and formulation of adequit population policy accounting for differention between ethnicities.
Fertility trends in Bulgaria and East Europe ( 1960 – 2000 )
Marta Sugareva, Ivan Garnizov, Kamellia Lillova
The article consists of three parts:1) a note on the socio-economic determinants of fertility in Bulgaria and in Eastern Europe; 2) a study of fertility dynamics in the European region before and after the transition to market economy and democracy (starting roughly in 1990); 3) a special study of fertility by age. The article is illustrated by original graphs (on the dynamics of the total fertility rate - fig.1; the dynamics of the age specific fertility rates- fig.2; the mean age at motherhood - fig 3), and by graphs published by the Council of Europe (on the dynamics of the percentage of extra-marital births - fig. 4).
On the basis of the analysis the authors conclude that a specific convergence is taking place in the recent years, though Eastern Europe is still displaying certain peculiarities resulting from the different demographic history and different present socio-economic situation.
Risk behaviors among the school aged children in Bulgaria
Tatyana Kotzeva and Elitsa Dimitrova
The paper is focused on the influence of the social differences in the Bulgarian society on the risk behaviors observed among the school aged children. On the basis of Health and Behaviors in School Aged Children study in which Bulgaria participated in 2006, we uncover the main factors that influence health and create differentials in terms of the children’s risk behaviors – alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use.
The analysis is based on descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. The alcohol consumption and smoking are tested as outcome variables that measure the risk behaviors. The predictors in the models are gender, age, the social economic status of the children’s families, the parental styles, the relationships in the family, the children’s health academic achievements, their physical activity, the school environment, and the peer-group’s influence.
The results uncover that the Bulgarian children gain experience with the cigarettes, spirits and cannabis very early in their lives. There are significant gender differences in terms of risk behavior. The girls smoke more than the boys. The boys drink more than the girls. The schoolchildren whose families are well-off tend to smoke less and drink more than the children from poor families. The children whose behaviors could be assessed as risky have lower academic achievements, more deviant behavior in terms of bulling others and being bullied by the others as well as more distanced contacts with their parents. The peer group’s culture and the number of evenings spent with friends also play significant role for the presences or absence of risk behaviors related with alcohol consumption and smoking among the school-aged children in Bulgaria.